(C) In Japan, consumers' age and sex influence how cell-phones penetrate
(D) In the Asia-Pacific wireless market, the number of cell-phones has
(E) No matter whether Japanese people are young or old, or male or
female, most of them have and use a cell-phone.
There have been many changes occurring in the Japanese economy and
these changes have had various consequences on other aspects of Japanese
society. For instance, many Japanese people feel that their incomes have been
becoming less equal. After poll results were published, members of the
present administration had to answer to accusations of being responsible for
the widening income gap. Economists have suggested that the idea of equal
income distribution in Japan was appropriate 20 years ago. However, now may
be the time to abandon this idea. Economists have also stated that the recent
growth of the income gap may be clue to the ongoing transformation of the
Japanese society into a more competitive one.
This transformation began with changes in corporate organization. Since
the early 1990s, company structures have changed to reduce personnel cost.
Many companies have apparently given up the concept of lifetime employment.
A large number of full-time workers have been replaced by part-timers, many
of whom have no claim to retirement benefits or health insurance. Factories
have been moved overseas, where lower labor costs allow for higher profits.
These efforts are intended to recreate the Japanese economy by making it
more competitive. Competition has also been encouraged within companies
through the introduction of a performance-based salary system. Performance
rewards, which were previously uncommon, have increased motivation among
workers. This newly found motivation has generated a certain level of desire
for better schooling because of the opportunities that exist for skilled workers
to obtain profitable positions. To keep this newly competitive labor market fair
and open, equality of educational opportunities is necessary.
However, access to education commonly is tied to family income as rich
parents can afford to send their children to famous and more expensive
schools. If this connection is ignored, it could produce a situation in which only
children of rich parents can receive the education required to get well-paid
jobs later in life. Provided that education is accessible to children independent
of their parents' income, the change into a more competitive society may boost
career opportunities for any aspiring individuals.
Economists tend to agree that the income gap is common in this age of
globalization. No one can deny that competition usually brings about greater
income variation. The widening income gap, caused in part by increased
competition, is perhaps the price the people have to pay for the revival of the
Japanese economy. Only the future will tell if this is a price worth paying.
(A) The income gap in Japan has been growing.
B) The income gap in Japan has not been growing.
(C) The Japanese are confident about finding a job easily.
(D) The unemployment rate in Japan has been decreasing.
(E) The unemployment rate in Japan has been increasing.
(AD Companies have fired many unproductive managers.
(B) Companies have hired numerous illegal immigrants.
(C) Companies have narrowed down their variety of products.
(D) Companies have not moved any of their factories overseas.
(E) Companies have replaced full-timers with part-timers. A) (E)on ~ m
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(A) Children without the necessary educational background can be placed
with famous and better paying companies by their wealthy parents.
(B) Japanese children can be more independent and find suitable jobs only
if they receive appropriate education.
(C) Only those who are highly educated can survive in the age of
globalization, which demands foreign-language and communication skills.
(D) People who do not have access to education would be at a
(E) Performance rewards are offered only to university-educated company