Pennsylvania was the most successful of the proprietary colonies. Admiral Sir William Penn was a wealthy and respected friend of Charles II. 国によって、海軍最高司令官からたんなる将官まで幅広く、どれを指すかは国によります。 Sir(卿 きょう)はもちろん貴族を意味します。 His son, William, was an associate of George Fox, founder of the Society of Friends―a despised Quaker. When the senior Penn died, in 1670, his Quaker son inherited not only the friendship of the Crown but also an outstanding unpaid debt of some magnitude owed to his father by the King. As settlement, in 1681 he received a grant of land in America, called “Pennsylvania,” which he decided to use as a refuge for his persecuted coreligionists. It was a princely domain, extending along the Delaware River. Penn was both ruler and landlord. The restrictions on the grant were that colonial laws had to be in harmony with those of England and had to be assented to by a representative assembly. Penn lost little time in advertising his grant and the terms on which he offered settlement. He promised religious freedom and virtually total self-government. More than 1,000 colonists arrived the first year, most of whom were Mennonites and Quakers. Penn himself arrived in 1682 and spent the winter at Upland, a Swedish settlement on the Delaware that the English had taken over; he renamed it Chester. He founded a capital city a few miles upstream and named it Philadelphia―the City of Brotherly Love. Well situated and well planned, it grew rapidly. Within two years, it had more than 600 houses, many of them handsome brick residences surrounded by lawns and gardens. Shiploads of Quakers poured into the colony. By the summer of 1683, more than 3,000 settlers had arrived. Welsh, Germans, Scotch-Irish, Mennonites, Quakers, Jews, and Baptists mingled in a New World utopia. Not even the great Puritan migration had populated a colony so fast. Pennsylvania soon rivaled Massachusetts, New York, and Virginia. In part its prosperity was attributable to its splendid location and fertile soils, but even more to the proprietor's felicitous administration. In a series of laws―the Great Law and the First and Second Frames of Government―Penn created one of the most humane and progressive governments then in existence. It was characterized by broad principles of religious toleration, a well-organized bicameral legislature, and forward-looking penal code. Another reason for the colony's growth was that, unlike the other colonies, it was not troubled by the Indians. Penn had bought their lands and made a series of peace treaties that were scrupulously fair and rigidly adhered to. For more than half a century, Indians and whites lived in Pennsylvania in peace. Quaker farmers, who were never armed, could leave their children with neighboring “savages” when they went into town for a visit. By any measure, Penn's “Holy Experiment” was a magnificent success. Penn proved that a state could function smoothly on Quaker principles, without oaths, arms, or priests, and that these principles encouraged individual morality and freedom of conscience. Furthermore, ever a good businessman, he made a fortune while treating his subjects with unbending fairness and honesty.